First, as English can be a bit confusing about this point, by "bi-weekly" do you mean 'every second week' or 'twice a week'?
To set up an appointment for every second week, in the Details screen when you create the event look for the Repeat dropdown list and select Other... then select a repeat pattern of Weekly and change the value to every 2 weeks, and check the day of the week it occurs each fortnight.
For an event that occurs twice a week, select a repeat pattern of Weekly, a value of every 1 weeks, and check the two days it occurs each week.
My Outlook.com calendar does show in 24 hour clock time, as do the options when creating new appointments. Isn't this determined in the settings?
CLick the Settings gear icon on the top right corner and select Options. Then select General > Region and time zone. There is a drop down option there to set your preferred time format.
I agree. For example, I currently use the 'football' charm for when I attend a sports event, e.g. a football or cricket match, but would like an additional charms for my own gym (dumbbells?) and cycling (a bike?) times. Perhaps Microsoft just needs a "suggest a charm" feature?
There seems to be some degree of smart charms already, but I'm not sure how comprehensive it is. In Outlook.com I set up a recurring appointment (three times a week) for my gym sessions. I didn't assign a charm to them but they show in the Outlook app on my phone with a "dumbbell" charm. There is no charm visible in Outlook.com or in the full Outlook app on my Windows laptop though.